tonsil anatomy and physiology


The lingual,pharyngeal and palatine tomsils ciompose the bulk of  the  so-called  Waldayer,s ring   of lynphatic  tissue that  lines the walls of nasopharynx and oropharynx.this ring is completed  by lynphoid tissue  located on  latteral pharyngeal wall described  as   the  latteral pharyngeal bands

Palatine Tonsil

The palatine tomsils can be  either  flattened or pedunculated  ovoid bodies of lynphoid  tissue.They are located in the posterolatteralr oropharynx in fossae that are described as the sinutonsilaris.although each le tonsil may be varible in  size,the lenghth of the adult  onsil  measures 20 to 25 mm, and  its tickness is about 12 mm and its width ranges from 15 to 20 mm.The average weight of the adulttonsil has bbeen foundto be 1.5 gm.

The  latteral  ral or attached surface of the palatine tonsil is covered  by a firm fibrous  capsule that is  loosely  continious  with the pharyngobasilar  fascia that overlies  the superior constrictor muscle  of the pharynx .this capsule  is in intimate  contact with  the deep  surface  of the tonsil and  extends  into the paranchyma  of the tonsil  to contribute to  connective tissue  septae.These septae  conduct  the tonsilar nrves and vessels.The mucosa of  free surface of the tonsil  is composed of stratified  squamous  epithelium that isvariably pitted with the openings of the tonsilar crypts or fossulae                                                                                                                                                                        The palatine tonsil is  bounded  posteromedially  by the palatopharyngeus  muscle,or posterior pillar,which originates from the caudal pharynx and inserts on the aponeurosis of the soft palate.The palatoglossus muscle ,or anterior pilar ,lies anteromedially  and originates  from the inferior surface of of the tongue  to also insert om the  palatal aponeurosis ,forming an arch with the palatopharygessus  muscle over  the tonsil.

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Each palatine tonsil is composed  of connnective tissue as well as lynphoid tissue and contains lynphoid cells  in various stages of development.The tonsilar crypt is unique and and represents tubular invagination s of surface  epithelium within the substance  of each tonsil.

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